Database Abstraction Layer

The Doctrine Database Abstraction Layer is the underlying framework that the ORM uses to communicate with the database and send the appropriate SQL depending on which database type you are using. It also has the ability to query the database for information like what table a database has or what fields a table has. This is how Doctrine is able to generate your models from existing databases so easily.

This layer can be used independently of the ORM. This might be of use for example if you have an existing application that uses PDO directly and you want to port it to use the Doctrine Connections and DBAL. At a later phase you could begin to use the ORM for new things and rewrite old pieces to use the ORM.

The DBAL is composed of a few different modules. In this chapter we will discuss the different modules and what their jobs are.

Export

The Export module provides methods for managing database structure. The methods can be grouped based on their responsibility: create, edit (alter or update), list or delete (drop) database elements. The following document lists the available methods, providing examples of their use.

Introduction

Every schema altering method in the Export module has an equivalent which returns the SQL that is used for the altering operation. For example createTable() executes the query / queries returned by createTableSql().

In this chapter the following tables will be created, altered and finally dropped, in a database named events_db:

events

Name Type Primary Auto Increment
id integer true true
name string(255) false false
datetime timestamp false false

people

Name Type Primary Auto Increment
id integer true true
name string(255) false false

event_participants

Name Type Primary Auto Increment
event_id integer true false
person_id string(255) true false

Creating Databases

It is simple to create new databases with Doctrine. It is only a matter of calling the createDatabase() function with an argument that is the name of the database to create.

// test.php

// ...
$conn->export->createDatabase('events_db');

Now lets change the connection in our bootstrap.php file to connect to the new events_db:

// bootstrap.php

/**
 * Bootstrap Doctrine.php, register autoloader and specify
 * configuration attributes
 */

 // ...
 $conn = Doctrine_Manager::connection('mysql://root:@localhost/events_db', 'doctrine');

 // ...

Creating Tables

Now that the database is created and we’ve re-configured our connection, we can proceed with adding some tables. The method createTable() takes three parameters: the table name, an array of field definition and some extra options (optional and RDBMS-specific).

Now lets create the events table:

// test.php

//
$definition = array(
    'id' => array(
        'type' => 'integer',
        'primary' => true,
        'autoincrement' => true
    ),
    'name' => array(
        'type' => 'string',
        'length' => 255
    ),
    'datetime' => array(
        'type' => 'timestamp'
    )
);

$conn->export->createTable('events', $definition);

The keys of the definition array are the names of the fields in the table. The values are arrays containing the required key type as well as other keys, depending on the value of type. The values for the type key are the same as the possible Doctrine datatypes. Depending on the datatype, the other options may vary.

Datatype length default not null unsigned autoincrement
string x x x    
boolean   x x    
integer x x x x x
decimal   x x    
float   x x    
timestamp   x x    
time   x x    
date   x x    
clob x   x    
blob x   x    

And now we can go ahead and create the people table:

// test.php

// ...
$definition = array(
    'id' => array(
        'type' => 'integer',
        'primary' => true,
        'autoincrement' => true
    ),
    'name' => array(
        'type' => 'string',
        'length' => 255
    )
);

$conn->export->createTable('people', $definition);

You can also specify an array of options as the third argument to the createTable() method:

// test.php

// ...
$options = array(
    'comment'       => 'Repository of people',
    'character_set' => 'utf8',
    'collate'       => 'utf8_unicode_ci',
    'type'          => 'innodb',
);

// ...

$conn->export->createTable('people', $definition, $options);

Creating Foreign Keys

Creating the event_participants table with a foreign key:

// test.php

// ...
$options = array(
    'foreignKeys' => array(
        'events_id_fk' => array(
            'local' => 'event_id',
            'foreign' => 'id',
            'foreignTable' => 'events',
            'onDelete' => 'CASCADE',
        )
    ),
    'primary' => array( 'event_id', 'person_id'),
);

$definition = array(
    'event_id' => array(
        'type' => 'integer',
        'primary' => true
    ),
    'person_id' => array(
        'type' => 'integer',
        'primary' => true
    ),
);

$conn->export->createTable('event_participants', $definition, $options);

Tip

In the above example notice how we omit a foreign key for the person_id. In that example we omit it so we can show you how to add an individual foreign key to a table in the next example. Normally it would be best to have both foreign keys defined on the in the foreignKeys.

Now lets add the missing foreign key in the event_participants table the on person_id column:

// test.php

// ...
$definition = array('local' => 'person_id',
                    'foreign' => 'id',
                    'foreignTable' => 'people',
                    'onDelete' => 'CASCADE');

$conn->export->createForeignKey('event_participants', $definition);

Altering table

:php:class:`Doctrine_Export` drivers provide an easy database portable way of altering existing database tables.

// test.php

// ...
$alter = array(
    'add' => array(
        'new_column' => array(
            'type' => 'string',
            'length' => 255
        ),
        'new_column2' => array(
            'type' => 'string',
            'length' => 255
        )
    )
);

echo $conn->export->alterTableSql('events', $alter);

The above call to alterTableSql() would output the following SQL query:

ALTER TABLE events ADD new_column VARCHAR(255),
ADD new_column2 VARCHAR(255)

Note

If you only want execute generated sql and not return it, use the alterTable() method.

// test.php

// ...
$conn->export->alterTable('events', $alter);

The alterTable() method requires two parameters and has an optional third:

Name Type Description
$name string Name of the table that is intended to be changed.
$changes array Associative array that contains the details of each type of change that is intended to be performed.

An optional third parameter (default: false):

Name Type Description
$check boolean Check if the DBMS can actually perform the operation before executing.

The types of changes that are currently supported are defined as follows:

Change Description
name New name for the table.
add Associative array with the names of fields to be added as indexes of the array. The value of each entry of the array should be set to another associative array with the properties of the fields to be added. The properties of the fields should be the same as defined by the Doctrine parser.
remove Associative array with the names of fields to be removed as indexes of the array. Currently the values assigned to each entry are ignored. An empty array should be used for future compatibility.
rename Associative array with the names of fields to be renamed as indexes of the array. The value of each entry of the array should be set to another associative array with the entry named name with the new field name and the entry named Declaration that is expected to contain the portion of the field declaration already in DBMS specific SQL code as it is used in the CREATE TABLE statement.
change Associative array with the names of the fields to be changed as indexes of the array. Keep in mind that if it is intended to change either the name of a field and any other properties, the change array entries should have the new names of the fields as array indexes.

The value of each entry of the array should be set to another associative array with the properties of the fields to that are meant to be changed as array entries. These entries should be assigned to the new values of the respective properties. The properties of the fields should be the same as defined by the Doctrine parser.

// test.php

// ...
$alter = array('name' => 'event',
               'add' => array(
                   'quota' => array(
                       'type' => 'integer',
                       'unsigned' => 1
                   )
               ),
               'remove' => array(
                   'new_column2' => array()
               ),
               'change' => array(
                   'name' => array(
                       'length' => '20',
                       'definition' => array(
                           'type' => 'string',
                           'length' => 20
                       )
                   )
               ),
               'rename' => array(
                   'new_column' => array(
                       'name' => 'gender',
                       'definition' => array(
                           'type' => 'string',
                           'length' => 1,
                           'default' => 'M'
                       )
                   )
               )
           );

$conn->export->alterTable('events', $alter);

Note

Notice how we renamed the table to event, lets rename it back to events. We only renamed it to demonstrate the functionality and we will need the table to be named events for the next examples.

// test.php

// ...
$alter = array(
    'name' => 'events'
);

$conn->export->alterTable('event', $alter);

Creating Indexes

To create an index, the method createIndex() is used, which has similar signature as createConstraint(), so it takes table name, index name and a definition array. The definition array has one key named fields with a value which is another associative array containing fields that will be a part of the index. The fields are defined as arrays with possible keys: sorting, with values ascending and descending length, integer value

Not all RDBMS will support index sorting or length, in these cases the drivers will ignore them. In the test events database, we can assume that our application will show events occuring in a specific timeframe, so the selects will use the datetime field in WHERE conditions. It will help if there is an index on this field.

// test.php

// ...
$definition = array(
    'fields' => array(
        'datetime' => array()
    )
);

$conn->export->createIndex('events', 'datetime', $definition);

Deleting database elements

For every create*() method as shown above, there is a corresponding drop*() method to delete a database, a table, field, index or constraint. The drop*() methods do not check if the item to be deleted exists, so it’s developer’s responsibility to check for exceptions using a try catch block:

// test.php

// ...
try {
    $conn->export->dropSequence('nonexisting');
} catch(Doctrine_Exception $e) {

}

You can easily drop a constraint with the following code:

// test.php

// ...
$conn->export->dropConstraint('events', 'PRIMARY', true);

Note

The third parameter gives a hint that this is a primary key constraint.

// test.php

// ... $conn->export->dropConstraint('event_participants', 'event_id');

You can easily drop an index with the following code:

$conn->export->dropIndex('events', 'event_timestamp');

Tip

It is recommended to not actually execute the next two examples. In the next section we will need the events_db to be intact for our examples to work.

Drop a table from the database with the following code:

// test.php

// ...
$conn->export->dropTable('events');

We can drop the database with the following code:

// test.php

// ...
$conn->export->dropDatabase('events_db');

Import

The import module allows you to inspect a the contents of a database connection and learn about the databases and schemas in each database.

Introduction

To see what’s in the database, you can use the list*() family of functions in the Import module.

Name Description
listDatabases() List the databases
listFunctions() List the available functions.
listSequences($dbName) List the available sequences. Takes optional database name as a parameter. If not supplied, the currently selected database is assumed.
listTableConstraints($tableName) Lists the available tables. takes a table name
listTableColumns($tableName) List the columns available in a table.
listTableIndexes($tableName) List the indexes defined in a table.
listTables($dbName) List the tables in a database.
listTableTriggers($tableName) List the triggers in a table.
listTableViews($tableName) List the views available in a table.
listUsers() List the users for the database.
listViews($dbName) List the views available for a database.

Below you will find examples on how to use the above listed functions:

Listing Databases

// test.php

// ...
$databases = $conn->import->listDatabases();
print_r($databases);

Listing Sequences

// test.php

// ... $sequences = $conn->import->listSequences('events_db');
print_r($sequences);

Listing Constraints

// test.php

// ...
$constraints = $conn->import->listTableConstraints('event_participants');
print_r($constraints);

Listing Table Columns

// test.php

// ... $columns = $conn->import->listTableColumns('events');
print_r($columns);

Listing Table Indexes

// test.php

// ... $indexes = $conn->import->listTableIndexes('events');
print_r($indexes);

Listing Tables

$tables = $conn->import->listTables();
print_r($tables);

Listing Views

Note

Currently there is no method to create views, so let’s do it manually.

$sql = "CREATE VIEW names_only AS SELECT name FROM people";
$conn->exec($sql);

$sql = "CREATE VIEW last_ten_events AS SELECT * FROM events ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 0,10";
$conn->exec($sql);

Now we can list the views we just created:

$views = $conn->import->listViews();
print_r($views);

DataDict

Introduction

Doctrine uses the DataDict module internally to convert native RDBMS types to Doctrine types and the reverse. DataDict module uses two methods for the conversions:

  • getPortableDeclaration(), which is used for converting native RDBMS type declaration to portable Doctrine declaration
  • getNativeDeclaration(), which is used for converting portable Doctrine declaration to driver specific type declaration

Getting portable declaration

// test.php

// ...
$declaration = $conn->dataDict->getPortableDeclaration('VARCHAR(255)');

print_r($declaration);

The above example would output the following:

$ php test.php
Array
(
    [type] => Array
        (
            [0] => string
        )
    [length] => 255
    [unsigned] =>
    [fixed] =>
)

Getting Native Declaration

// test.php

// ...
$portableDeclaration = array(
    'type' => 'string',
    'length' => 20,
    'fixed' => true
);

$nativeDeclaration = $conn->dataDict->getNativeDeclaration($portableDeclaration);

echo $nativeDeclaration;

The above example would output the following:

$ php test.php
CHAR(20)

Drivers

Mysql

Setting table type

// test.php

// ...
$fields = array(
    'id' => array(
        'type' => 'integer',
        'autoincrement' => true
    ),
    'name' => array(
        'type' => 'string',
        'fixed' => true,
        'length' => 8
    )
);

Note

The following option is mysql specific and skipped by other drivers.

$options = array('type' => 'INNODB');

$sql = $conn->export->createTableSql('test_table', $fields);
echo $sql[0];

The above will output the following SQL query:

CREATE TABLE test_table (id INT AUTO_INCREMENT,
name CHAR(8)) ENGINE = INNODB

Conclusion

This chapter is indeed a nice one. The Doctrine DBAL is a great tool all by itself. It is probably one of the most fully featured and easy to use PHP database abstraction layers available today.

Now we are ready to move on and learn about how to use Transactions.

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